The carbon footprint of a product or service is the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (such as methane and nitrous oxide) emitted over the life cycle of that product or service, expressed as kilograms of CO2 equivalents. KPAD, using LCA software tools and a standards-based methodology, can evaluate carbon, energy and water footprints taking into account a number of critical factors in the life cycles of products and services:

  • Production and transport of raw materials, components, ingredients and other supplies
  • Production of the final product
  • Any additional processing and packaging of the product
  • Transportation of the product through a distribution network, consisting of various transport modes and storage locations
  • Temperature control in transport and storage
  • Delivery of the product or service to consumer
  • Use of the product or service
  • End-of-life disposal of the product
  • Solid waste and waste water generated throughout the life cycle
  • Land use impacts
  • Carbon storage and sequestration in products and components
  • Time-dependent GHG emissions and carbon sequestration throughout the life cycle